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Race Relations
Postcard, "Greetings from South Carolina, the Palmetto State"

Please note that items in bold are described in the Library's online catalog and you will need to review the catalog to obtain the call number of each item. Other items are described in guides in Special Collections and Archives. Also, please note that the term "American" includes South, Central, and North America.

I. Manuscript and Archival Materials
  • Edmund Botsford Family Collection, 1799-1819:
    Letters Edmund Botsford wrote to Richard Furman and other ministers, as well as essays, sermons, financial records, and allegories; he was interested in a biracial church.
  • Appeal to the Christian women of the South, A. E. Grimké, 1836
  • Ware Family Papers deeds of sale, valuation of slaves 1838-1842
  • Weaver letters regarding contested ownership of slaves in VA, 1844, Small Manuscripts Oversize Box 1
  • Copy of Deed of Sale for 13 slaves in Darlington District, Jan 2, 1847
  • in South Caroliniana Primary Document Collection, Box 7 small manuscripts
  • Patrick McGill Family Papers, contains various letters and bills related to slaves, including medical bills, a letter selling slaves, estimates of slave values, and a receipt for slaves left to family members through a will.
  • Harper's Weekly map, Nov. 23, 1861, showing proportion of slaves in each county
  • The Furman Family Collection - Letters discussing hiring former slaves (1866) in Folder 8, Box 3
  • John H. Harrison, Sr., Collection (1840-1919) - Document dated August 3, 1880: "This certifies that the Board of County Commissioners for Greenville County have this day apprenticed Harriet Walker colored, to John H. Harrison. The said Harriet Walker being as is supposed about eight years of age."
  • Mary Bridges Barr Family Collection (1863-1898): Correspondence between members of the Bridges/Barr family. Includes discussion of slaves returning after emancipation.
  • South Caroliniana:
    "Negro Tea-pickers Singing Pickaninny Songs to the President," photograph caption, Harper's Weekly page 522, "The President at the Charleston Exhibition," ca. April 1902.
  • Greenville County Council for Community Development Collection:
    Materials from a community project organized by Furman President Bennette E. Geer from 1936-1941 as a grand experiment in adult education, curriculum development and community planning. Records include extensive materials from the Committee on Interracial Cooperation, which studied housing conditions and worked to support community institutions in Greenville's African American neighborhoods.
  • Edward A. McDowell Collection (1898-1975):
    A Furman graduate, newspaper reporter, and teacher at Southern Seminary, McDowell served as a member of a special Southern Baptist Convention Committee on Race Relations. His interest and involvement in race relations in the 1950s and 1960s led him to receive an award from the State Baptist Convention for personal involvement in social causes. This collection includes correspondence, writings, and teaching material.
  • Furmaniana:
    Integration; Vaughn, Joe (Furman's first African-American student)
  • Samuel George Lovell Collection (1941-1967, 1988):
    A well-known progressive Southern Baptist minister in South Carolina during the 1950s and 1960s. Long-time pastor of the First Baptist Church, Conway, South Carolina. Also served as President of the South Carolina Baptist Convention. Collection includes clippings, articles, correspondence, and other material related to the life of S. George Lovell. This collection is not yet processed; contents are also available on microfilm.
  • Gordon Williams Blackwell Collection:
    Serving as Furman University's President from 1965-1976, Blackwell led the University through the turbulent years of integration. Upon his appointment as President, he insisted that the University integrate and he worked tirelessly to improve race relations in the Upstate. This collection includes documents from Blackwell's tenure as President.
  • South Carolina $5 bank note, The Bank of Hamburg, 1860. Has the image of a young male slave working with a white man, and other figures working in a field.
II. Books and Published
19th Century


  • Correspondence, between the Hon. F. H. Elmore, one of the South Carolina delegation in Congress, and James G. Birney, one of the secretaries of the American anti-slavery society, 1838
  • The Planter's Northern Bride, Caroline Lee Hentz, 1851
  • Northwood; or, Life North and South: showing the true character of both, Mrs. Sarah Josepha Hale, ca. 1852
  • Aunt Phillis's cabin; or, Southern life as it is, Mary H. Eastman, 1852
  • Manuel Pereira; or, The Sovereign rule of South Carolina. With views of southern laws, life, and hospitality, F. C. Adams, 1853
  • Indigenous races of the earth; or, New chapters of ethnological inquiry; including monographs on special departments, J. C. Nott, 1857
  • Father Henson's story of his own life, Josiah Henson, with an introd. by H.B. Stowe, 1858
  • The black gauntlet; a tale of plantation life in South Carolina, Mrs. Henry R. Schoolcraft, 1860
  • Reports of the Committee on the Conduct of the War: Fort Pillow Massacre; Returned Prisoners, House of Representatives, 1864
  • Nojoque; A Question For A Continent., Hinton Rowan Helper, 1867
  • Proceedings in the Ku Klux trials at Columbia, S.C., in the United States Circuit Court, November term, 1871, Printed from government copy, 1872
  • The prostrate state: South Carolina under Negro government, James S. Pike, 1874
  • The Tragedy of Pudd'nhead Wilson: And The Comedy Those Extraordinary Twins, Mark Twain, 1894


  • Charleston Courier, August 13, 1806. Has several advertisements for the sale of slaves, hiring of slaves, and rewards for runaway slaves. ACS Grant Historical Newspapers, Map Case
  • New Hampshire Patriot, July 30, 1816. Article, “Insurrection of the Negros”, describes a slave insurrection in Camden, South Carolina. ACS Grant Historical Newspapers, Map Case
  • Daily National Intelligence, Washington D.C. newspaper, August 7, 1827. This paper contains advertisements for a reward for the capture of a runaway slave, and the sale of a runaway slave. ACS Grant Historical Newspapers, Map Case
  • The Charleston Mercury, January 15, 1849 ACS Grant Historical Newspapers, Map Case
    - contains 17 varying advertisements for the sale and hire of slaves.
    - “State of South Carolina”- notice describing a new ordinance on taxing property in Charleston. A Section includes a brief mention of Slaves and their liability to taxation.
    - Notice, “State of South Carolina,” about an ordinance to repeal the second section of a previous ordinance, “An Ordinance to Repeal the Ordinance Requiring Public Sales to be made at the Slave Mart, and to prohibit the sale of slaves at public auction, in any street, lane, or unclosed lot.”
    - Article, “Correspondence to the Mercury”- letter discusses a bill being reviewed by the Committee of Territories in Washington, that would prohibit the entering of slaves into D.C. The letter also gives the writer's opinion on the South’s responses to Northern aggression and abolitionists.
    - Article, “Romantic but Sad Reality”-article about the murder of a slave boy by a “deranged” young white man in Virginia.
    - Article, “Slave Census in Kentucky.”
    - Article, “City Taxes” - The City Assessor mentions guidelines for listing slaves, and gives a specific date range to be contacted by free people of color.
  • The Connecticut Courant, May 12, 1860. ACS Grant Historical Newspapers, Map Case
  • - Article, “Fugitive Slave Case in Boston –The Slave found secreted on board a steamer –He Sent Back to his Master” - The story of a fugitive slave from Charleston, SC.
    - This paper contains several advertisements for the sale of slaves, and several advertisements seeking to hire black workers.
    - Article, “the M.E General conference and the Slavery Question”- relates that members of the M.E. Church in Pennsylvania petitioned the church’s General Conference to bar membership to slaveholders.
    - Article, “The negros at Key West”- A New York Herald correspondent describes the refugee camp of Africans liberated from 3 slave ships that were docked in Florida. The correspondent describes them as festive, and views them more favorably than the native slave population. The article also discusses plans to ship them to Liberia, the West African country established for liberated American Slaves. The correspondent laments their return to “barbarism” and advocates a continued colony in Key West.
  • New-York Tribune, February 19, 1862. ACS Grant Historical Newspapers, Map Case
  • - Article, “Light on the Slavery Question. The Negroes in South Carolina. Report of a Government Agent” – Report written on the liberated Sea Island slaves of South Carolina and their treatment from the Union Army by Edward L. Pierce.
    - Article, “The Negroes at Port Royal” – References the report by Edward L. Pierce and provides some details on the Sea Island slaves.
    - Article, “Slavery Agitation –Shall it be stopped!” – Article arguing against reconciliation with the Confederacy before victory, because the institution of slavery led to agitation and social disruption.
  • Harper's Weekly, Images of Freedmen, 1879-1881, 1886 [range 15]

Speeches, Addresses, Sermons

  • "Speech of the Rev. W.H. Brisbane, lately a slaveholder in South Carolina: Delivered before the Female Anti-Slavery Society of Cincinnati", William Henry Brisbane, 1840
  • Our duty to the African race: an address delivered at Washington, D.C., January 21, 1851, Richard Fuller, 1851
  • "The education of colored preachers," a sermon preached at the Anniversaries in Chicago, May 21, 1871
20th Century
  • Revised and amended prescript of Ku Klux Klan, Ku Klux Klan, 1904
  • The clansman: an historical romance of the Ku Klux Klan, Thomas Dixon, Jr.; illustrated by Arthur I. Keller, 1905
  • Memorabilia and Anecdotal Reminiscences of Columbia, South Carolina, Julian A. Selby, 1905
  • The Black Border: Gullah Stories of the Carolina Coast, Ambrose Gonzales, 1922
  • With Aesop Along the Black Border, Ambrose Gonzales, 1924
  • The Captain: Stories of the Black Border, Ambrose Gonzales, 1924
  • Laguerre: A Gascon of the Black Border, Ambrose Gonzales, 1924
  • The Slave Trade: Slavery and Color, Theodore D. Jervey, 1925
  • Ousting the Carpetbagger from South Carolina, Henry T. Thompson, 1926
  • Congaree sketches: scenes from Negro life in the swamps of the Congaree and tales by Tad and Scip of heaven and hell with other miscellany, Edward C.L. Adams; with an introduction by Paul Green, 1927
  • American Negro songs and spirituals : a comprehensive collection of 230 folk songs, religious and secular , with a foreword by John W. Work, 1940
  • The Song of the Cotton Picker, Madeline Horres Hantske, 1940
  • God the Original Segregationist, and Seven Other Segregation Sermons, Carey L. Daniel, 1950s
  • South Carolinians speak: a moderate approach to race relations, compiled by Ralph E. Cousins, 1957
  • The Racial Problem In Christian Perspective, Kyle Haselden, 1959
  • The Case for the South, William D. Workman, 1960
  • Christianity and Race Relations: Messages From The Second Annual Conference on Human Relations, Forest Hills Baptist Church..., 1963
  • Mandate for White Christians, Kyle Haselden, 1966
  • Red Carolinians, Chapman J. Milling, 1969
  • Consultation on Baptist cooperation, South Carolina Baptist Convention, 1970
  • The River of No Return: The Autobiography of a Black Militant and the Life and Death of the SNCC, Cleveland Sellers, 1973
  • The Phoenix riot, Bruce Lee Kleinschmidt, 1974
  • Black Bicentennial Collector's Issue, JET Magazine, July 8, 1976
  • Mary Boykin Chesnut's South: an Anthology, University of South Carolina Southern Studies Program, 1977
  • A historical study of Southern Baptists and race relations, 1917-1947, Foy D. Valentine, 1980
  • Southerner's, A Journalist's Odyssey, Marshall Frady, 1980
  • Will Campbell and the Soul of the South, Thomas Lawrence Connelly, 1982
  • Jesse Jackson (sound recording), 1984
  • In my father's house are many mansions: family and community in Edgefield, South Carolina, Orville Vernon Burton, 1985
  • Rab and Dab, Elizabeth Allston Pringle (1845-1921), ed. Anne Blythe, 1985
  • Black Charlestonians: a social history, 1822-1885, Bernard E. Powers, Jr, 1994
  • The state of race relations in the US since the death of MLK, Frederick Wright, 1994
  • Prolegomena To Any Future Metaphysics Of Race: Cornel West's Genealogical Materialist Analysis, Brett Bond Paden, 1995
  • The Southern Baptist Convention and the judgement of history: the taint of an original sin, E. Luther Copeland, 1995
  • Freedom's child: the life of a Confederate general's Black daughter, Carrie Allen McCray, 1998
  • Crossing the line: interracial couples in the South, Robert P. McNamara, Maria Tempenis, and Beth Walton, 1999
21st Century
  • Abstracts of Extant Greenville, South Carolina, Newspapers Concerning Black People, Free and Slave, 1826-1865, Anne K. McCuen, 2000
  • Integration With Dignity: A Celebration of Harvey Gantt's Admission to Clemson, Clemson University Digital Press, c2003
  • Does race matter?: the relationship between race and arrests for traffic violations for Greenville City and Greenville County, Yendelela Neely, 2003
  • Baptist faith in action : the private writings of Maria Baker Taylor, 1813-1895, Kathryn Carlisle Schwartz, 2003
  • All according to God's plan: Southern Baptist missions and race, 1945-1970, Alan Scot Willis, 2005
  • Proslavery and sectional thought in the early South. 1740-1849: an anthology, edited by Jeffrey Robert Young, 2006
  • Blue Hole Back Home: A Novel Inspired by a True Story, Joy Jordan-Lake, 2008
  • The Palmetto State: the making of modern South Carolina, Jack Bass and W. Scott Poole, 2009
  • Courage to Dissent: Atlanta and the Long History of the Civil Rights Movement, Tomiko Brown-Nagin, 2011
  • African American slavery and disability: bodies, property, and power in the antebellum South, 1800-1860, Dea H. Boster, 2013
III. Microfilm from General Collection
  • Negro artisan in the South Atlantic States, 1800-1860 a study of status and economic opportunity with special reference, Leonard P. Stavisky, 1958
  • Southern Negroes, 1877-1929 the outsider's view, Alton Hornsby, 1969
  • Race Relations in South Carolina, 1900-1932, Robert Burke Everett, 1937
  • Origins and development of higher education for Negroes in South Carolina to 1920, Paul Lawrence Sanford, 1969
IV. Microfilm from Special Collections
V. Reference Materials
  • Race and region, a descriptive bibliography with special reference to the relations between whites and Negroes in the United States, Edgar T. Thompson and Alma Macy Thompson, 1949, University of North Carolina Press, Reference Collection
  • American ethnic groups and the revival of cultural pluralism; evaluative sourcebook for the 1970s, Jack F. Kinton, 1974, Aurora, Ill., Social Science and Sociological Resources, Reference Collection
  • Black-white racial attitudes: an annotated bibliography, Constance E. Obudho, 1976, Greenwood Press, Reference Collection
  • Race and ethnic relations in Latin America and the Caribbean: an historical dictionary and bibliography , Robert M. Levine, 1980Scarecrow Press, Reference Collection
  • South Africa under apartheid: a select and annotated bibliography, Jaqueline A. Kalley, 1989, Meckler, Reference Collection
  • The civil rights movement, Paul T. Murray, 1993, Maxwell Macmillan International, Reference Collection
  • Racism in contemporary America, compiled by Meyer Weinberg, 1996, Greenwood Press, Reference Collection
  • Civil Rights in the United States, edited by Waldo E. Martin, Jr. and Patricia Sullivan, 2000, Macmillan Reference USA, Reference Collection
  • Encyclopedia of American Minorities in Politics, edited by Jeffrey D. Schultz, 2000 Oryx Press, Reference Collection
  • Dictionary of race, ethnicity and culture, edited by Guido Bolaffi, 2003, Sage Publications, Reference Collection
  • The Greenwood encyclopedia of African American civil rights: from emancipation to the twenty-first century , edited by Charles D. Lowery and John F. Marszalek, 2003, Greenwood Press, Reference Collection
  • Encyclopedia of race and ethnic studies, Ellis Cashmore, 2004, Routledge, Reference Collection
  • Encyclopedia of African American society, edited by Gerald D. Jaynes, 2005, Sage Publications , Reference Collection
  • The Martin Luther King, Jr., encyclopedia, 2008, Greenwood Press, Reference Collection
VI. Online Resources at Furman
  • African American Almanac Provides a range of historical and current information on African American history, society and culture. Includes coverage of such topics as: Africa and the Black diaspora; film and television; landmarks; national organizations; population; religion; science and technology; and sports.
  • African American Newspapers Includes digitized newspapers between 1827-1998. The database is searchable by topic or historical era.
  • African American Studies Center A comprehensive collection of scholarship focusing on the lives and events which have shaped African American and African history and culture. Includes 7,500 articles. The core content includes Africana, which presents an account of the African and African American experience in five volumes.
  • America: History & Life Historical coverage of the United States and Canada from over 2000 English language journals. Also includes book reviews.
  • American Periodicals Series American Periodicals Series contains digital copies of American magazines and journals published from colonial days to the dawn of the 20th century.
  • American Song American Song is a history database containing 50,000 tracks that allow people to hear and feel the music from America's past. The database includes songs by and about American Indians, miners, immigrants, slaves, children, pioneers, and cowboys. Included in the database are the songs of Civil Rights, political campaigns, Prohibition, the Revolutionary War, the Civil War, anti-war protests, and more. This release includes 1,048 albums, equalling 17,940 tracks.
  • America's Historical Newspapers
  • Archives Unbound (Limit search to "Southern Literary Messenger" collection) The Southern Literary Messenger enjoyed an impressive thirty-year run and was in its time the South's most important literary periodical. Avowedly a southern publication, the Southern Literary Messenger was also the one literary periodical published that was widely circulated and respected among a northern readership. Demonstrates how the hot-button topics of slavery and secession were presented in southern intellectual and literary culture in the early stages of the Civil War.
  • The Atlanta Constitution, 1868-1945
  • Black Women in America Pulls together the research in this field to provide a building block of Black Women's Studies. Includes women such as Venus and Serena Williams, Condoleezza Rice, Carol Moseley Braun, Ruth Simmons, and Ann Fudge. Addresses the achievements of black women throughout history, highlights their ongoing contributions in America today, and represents the new research the first edition helped to generate.
  • Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619-1895 Covers major topics such as “Abolitionism,” “Black Nationalism,” the “Dred Scott case,” “Reconstruction,” “Slave Rebellions and Insurrections,” the “Underground Railroad,” and “Voting Rights." But the encyclopedia also contains hundreds of fascinating entries on less obvious subjects, such as the “Black Seafarers,” “Buffalo Soldiers,” the “Catholic Church and African Americans,” “New York African Free Schools,” the “Secret Six,” as well as biographies of historical personalities.
  • Encyclopedia of African American History, 1896-present Contains approximately 1,200 fully cross-referenced entries all signed by leading scholars and experts covering the transition from the Reconstruction Era to the age of Jim Crow, the Harlem Renaissance, the Civil Rights Movement, the 2008 election of Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States, and the ascendant influence of African Americans on the American cultural landscape.
  • Encyclopedia of African American Society This two-volume reference seeks to capture the ways in which the tenets and foundations of African American culture have given rise to today's society. Approaching the field from a "street level" perspective, these two volumes cover topics of universal interest in America: rap music, sports, television, cinema, racism, religion, literature, and much more.
  • Films on Demand, "A Fatal Contradiction," and "African-Americans Lives 2: the Past is Another Country"
  • Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History Provides an accounting of the history of the U.S. economy. Includes essays; Biography; industry and geographic profiles; and definitions covering key events, movements, businesses and topics concerning this important curricular area. Features entries on concepts and terms, entry-specific list of further reading, more than 200 illustrations, a timeline and chronological table of contents and a general alphabetical index.
  • New York Times Historical 1851-2007 Full Image Searchable full image of every page of the New York Daily Times and New York Times including all advertisements.
  • US History in Context US History in Contex has periodicals, newspapers, primary source documents, radio/television transcripts, and streaming audio and video clips.
VII. Web Sites